prerenal acute kidney injury Help

Mr. J.R. could be suffering from prerenal acute kidney injury. The condition is associated with dehydration that impairs kidney perfusion. The patient’s dehydration resulted from persistent diarrhea and vomiting which are associated with massive fluid loss from the body (Walley et al., 2019). Low fluid volume impaired kidney perfusion resulting in cellular damage. The impaired perfusion affects the brain as well, causing reduced cerebration. Low brain activity causes orthostatic hypotension, whose presentation includes dizziness when standing up, as Mr. J.R. is experiencing.

Mr. J.R. presents intrinsic acute kidney injury symptoms as well. This kind of presentation includes fever, vomiting, and confusion. The condition results from acute interstitial nephritis caused by reactions to certain drugs. Bismuth sub-salicylate, which the patient ingested, contains salicylic acid that may cause such reactions (Mercado et al., 2019). Therefore, an intrinsic acute kidney injury diagnosis is probable given the patient’s fever, vomiting, and use of Pepto-Bismol drugs. prerenal acute kidney injury Assignment Help

prerenal acute kidney injury Assignment Help

Question II

Create a list of risk factors the patient might have and explain why.

  1. Dehydration

Dehydration causes multiple physiological changes that increase a patient’s susceptibility to AKI and one of them is hypotension. The condition reduces the amount of fluid available for circulation, impairing oxygen-carrying capacity in the blood. Low perfusion implies lower rates of oxygen transport to organs including the kidneys. Persistent hypoperfusion prolongs cellular hypoxia and cell death. Cellular degeneration in the kidneys comprises AKI. Therefore,

dehydration’s fluid loss increases a patient’s propensity of developing acute kidney injury (Divney et al., 2019).

  1. Hypertension

Several factors result in hypertension in populations of all ages. However, the condition has the highest prevalence of up to 72% in geriatric populations, making it probable comorbidity for Mr. J.R (Divney et al., 2019). The condition results from increased cardiac output or altered peripheral resistance and causes extreme blood pressure in vessels. Major vessels’ endothelium is thick enough to sustain this high pressure but tiny blood capillaries’ walls fail to withstand this change resulting in their damage. The impaired microcirculation interrupts free and hemoglobin-facilitated oxygen diffusion between blood and intracellular space, causing cellular hypoxia and eventual cellular death. Cellular death in kidneys constitutes AKI.

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