# Bivariate Statistics Assignment Help

Assignment 4: Bivariate statistics To be submitted electronically Quantitative methods for conict studies and human rights, ECH3360

1. Bivariate Statistics. Amartya Sen famously wrote that \No famine has ever taken place in the history of the world in a functioning democracy”.1 In this exercise you will undertake to examine the link between democracy and child malnutrition, to shed empirical light on Sen’s statement. The le democracy underweight.csv provides data at the country level on two variables: (1) the proportion of underweight children 0-5years old in each country. This variable is divided into three categories: Low: 0 to 14% of children in
the country are underweight; Medium: 14 to 28% of children underweight; High: 28 to 42% of children underweight,2 and (2) whether the country is a democracy (TRUE/FALSE).3
(a) Make a cross-tabulation that shows the number of countries that take on each level for the two variables (i.e., how many countries are highly democratic and have a medium proportion of malnourished children, etc.). (Hint: the table should columns and rows with one variable (democracy, malnutrition) in each { see below. You may nd Excel’s PivotTable function useful.) Make sure your table is well-labeled and clear.
Democracy Malnutrition True False
Low – –
Med – –
High – –
Figure 1: Example of a cross-tabulation
(b) Conduct a 2 test to test whether there is a relationship between democracy and child malnutrition. Show your calculations. Interpret the ndings.
(c) Does this provide evidence that democracy causes improvements children’s nutrition? Use the “four hurdles” framework from Kellstedt and Whitten to structure your answer. Bivariate Statistics

1. Bivariate Statistics In a recent study, Banerjee et al. (2015) provide evidence from a randomized controlled trial on how a multifaceted program can help to improve the lives of the very poor.4 The le banerjee data.csv includes the data for one country analyzed by Banerjee – Ethiopia. The variable id is a unique identi er number for each household. The variable treatment indicates whether the household was provided an income support program (1) or not (0). Because this was a randomized controlled trial, the treatment status of the household was randomly assigned by Banerjee et al. (2015) as part of the experiment. The variables foodsecurity bsl and foodsecurity end are indices that measures ve components of food security.5 The food security indices are numeric, and are constructed so that a score of 0 indicates a household is at the mean food security level for all the households included in the sample, a positive score indicates the household is more food secure than the mean household in the sample, and vice-versa for a negative score. The sux bsl refers to the measure of food security before the program was implemented, and the sux end refers to the same measure 3 years after the program was started. 1Sen, Amartya, 1999, Democracy as Freedom, Knopf. 2Data come from the World Bank. 3Data come from the PolityIV database. A country is considered a democracy if it’s democracy score in the Polity database is greater than or equal to 8 out of 10. 4Banerjee, Abhijit, et al. \A multifaceted program causes lasting progress for the very poor: Evidence from six countries.” Science 348.6236 (2015): 1260799. The program provides selected very poor households with a productive asset (usually goats), Bivariate Statistics. weekly income support for a few months to a year, training, and a savings account. 5The food security indices are measured based on answers to several questions: (1) Everyone gets enough food every day, (2) no adult skips meal, (3) no one went a whole day without food, (4) no child skipped meal, (5) everyone regularly eats two
meals a day. 1 (a) Before the program was initiated, was there any di erence in mean food security between house-holds that were eventually to receive the treatment compared to those that did not? Is the di erence statistically signi cant (i.e., are you at least 95% sure there’s a di erence)? Why do you think this is?
(b) Is the program associated with a change in mean food security for treated households relative to untreated households (to determine the change in security, subtract the baseline value from the endline value)? How big was it? How con dent are you that the program is associated with a change in food security?
(c) Does this provide evidence that the program caused a change in food security for treated house-holds? Bivariate Statistics
2. P zer and BioNTech announced the results of Phase III trials of their experimental COVID-19 vaccine in November 2020. 43,000 participants were randomly divided into two equal groups, with half given a placebo and half given a vaccine. 162 of the participants in the placebo group became sick, and 8 participants in the treatment group. How con dent can we be that the vaccine is e ective (i.e., that it reduces sickness relative to the placebo group)? Data to answer this question is in covid vaccine.csv