Applied Sciences: Why does the US spend more on medical care than other wealthy nations?
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The following areas are addressed. I would recommend using the “Find” function in the home tab and you can quickly navigate to the sections in seconds.
Determining Credible Sources
This is by far the most important skill in higher education—selecting credible sources. The reason is that opinions based on the experience of one (usually the person giving the opinion) do not have as much academic credibility as the experience of many. For example, the first sentence in this paragraph is my opinion. It sounds good, but readers must challenge its validity. If that sentence was to be supported by a credible source based on scientific research, then it can almost be taken at face value. Unfortunately, Shen and Liu (2011) disagree with me in a quasi-experimental research study with a sample of fifty college students which concluded that metacognitive skills are most important in higher education. The experiences of 50 seem to have more validity than the experience of one!
In master’s studies knowledge of the truth about the world in the industry of the chosen program of study must be of high academic quality (Roberts & Shambrook, 2012). And in academia, quality is widely thought of through a peer review process by “subjecting an author’s scholarly work to scrutiny of others who are considered experts in the same subject area” (Roberts & Shambrook, 2012, p. 34). Students must use primary sources (Wallace, 2008) to support their claims or understanding of a subject. Applied science
Peer reviewed material undergo a rigorous process (Roberts & Shambrook, 2012; Wallace, 2008) unlike information found in places like Wikipedia. Applied Sciences. This is not to say that information found in Wikipedia, or sites like it, is bad and should not be used. It just cannot be used to support claims in academia. I use Wikipedia as my first source of understanding and a starting point to gather my thoughts, but peer-reviewed articles are the ones to provide the necessary support. Wikipedia is a place to quickly find information about anything and everything and it may be the reason why technology savvy students use it as a source of quick information.
Similar to Wikipedia are many sites on the internet. In the courses I teach I have often seen websites which provide students quick information—sometimes in the form of entire essays! Places like MyPaper Writer, MyEssays, and OPPapers are places where information flows from other students who have already submitted their assignments to other universities. I realize that this is more of a plagiarism problem than seeking information from sources of questionable validity, but the bottom line is the same—questionable validity!
Roberts and Shambrook (2012) and Wallace (2008) promote that reliable sources are those who have undergone a rigorous process to prove their validity within the body of knowledge in a particular subject. And in order to be considered of high academic quality, the source must be accepted by experts in the field in an anonymous process, have sound methodological processes, have met accepted standards of scholarship, not published previously, and have a contribution to the body of knowledge (Roberts & Shambrook, 2012).
Applied science It is then necessary to keep these criteria in mind at the time of doing research and selecting sources to support claims. Although the act of peer review suggests a standard of acceptability and not necessarily validity, sources not meeting the majority of these criteria should be considered “good-to-know” but not “good-to-use,” at least in academia.
Roberts, T. J., & Shambrook, J. (2012). Academic excellence: A commentary and reflections on the inherent value of peer review. Journal of Research Administration, 43(1), 33-38.
Shen, C., & Liu, H. (2011). Metacognitive skills development: A web-based approach in higher education. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – TOJET, 10(2), 140-150.
Wallace, J. D. (2008). Accelerated peer-review journal usage technique for undergraduates. Communication Teacher, 22(3), 80-83.
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